Winter 1991 // Volume 29 // Number 4

Previous Issue Back Issues Next Issue Toggle Abstracts On or Off

Editor's Page

Editor's Page
It has been an honor to serve as editor of the Journal of Extension. When I became editor, it was clear the Journal's future was closely tied to the future of Extension. That's still true. The Journal supports Extension's future by making it clear that Extension operates from a knowledge base-and the Journal contributes to Extension's future by continuing to build and communicate that knowledge base.


Feature Articles

Gardening's Socioeconomic Impacts
Patel, Ishwarbhai C.
Extension has led the way to help the farming community produce food for the nation. The same sort of leadership could make city vacant lots produce fresh nutritious food for low-income families and individuals close to home. The future holds a tremendous potential for community gardening and Extension's involvement.

Leadership Involving Volunteers
Penrod, Kathryn M.
The L-O-O-P model (locating, orienting, operating, perpetuating) is a management tool that helps leaders who work with volunteers organize their efforts meaningfully. When the four sequential phases of L-O-O-P are used to manage work with volunteers, projects are completed more efficiently and effectively and are more likely to stay focused and help achieve Extension's mission.

Computer Literacy and Use
Taylor, Mark T. Hoag, Dana L. Owen, Mitchell B.
Computer literacy may be more widespread among Extension clientele than previously supposed and will probably increase as computers become a more important part of daily life. This is reflected in the numbers of non-owners of computers in the survey who were computer literate (20%). Nevertheless, the majority of Extension clientele aren't computer literate, and important differences exist in their needs.

Telephone Hotline Programming
Molgaard, Virginia K. Phillips, Fran
Because of its knowledge of existing resources around the state and because of the trust Rural Concern Hotline has been built up, this telephone service stands ready to help in rural emergencies. In the Summer 1988 drought, the hotline linked people who needed hay with those who could provide it...During Operation Desert Storm, the hotline answered calls from family members of military requesting information about local support groups. And so, while the hotline continues to handle calls from farm families in severe financial difficulties, the purpose and future direction have expanded to include new services.

Self-Esteem of Rural Teens
Hall, Anita M. Rowe, George P.

Videos for Self-Study

Teenagers' feelings of self-worth affect all aspects of their lives and strongly influence the realization of their potential. We as Extension educators have a responsibility to help each individual with whom we work to develop a positive feeling of self-worth. Teens, just by the nature of their transition status, are especially vulnerable to experiences that may alter their self-esteem for the rest of their life. We must accept this responsibility in all of our programming areas.

To The Point

Stating Our Values and Beliefs
Smith, M. F. Oliver, Craig S.
Each state should have a current statement of its values, beliefs, and goals-a statement that explains what it stands for, what it believes in, and what it intends to accomplish. ...we think the most important thing we can do at the administrative level is to try to model the behaviors we know are so important and to reward individual faculty as we see him or her following suit.

It's Been Done, Almost
Schuchardt, Jane Geasler, Mitch
Writing a statement doesn't guarantee a sense of organizational spirit and community that's evident to our collaborators and clients.

Stand for Nothing-Fall for Anything
Grimes, Mable J.
I have heard lots of talk; but I have seen very little action. When one checks the practices of the Cooperative Extension System's administrators and professionals with the principles that supposedly undergird these practices, a vast gap often appears.


Targeting Audiences for the 21st Century
Grogan, Soneeta
Many Extension staff have the ability to develop skills and sensitivities needed to educate low-income and minority audiences. What's needed now is an active commitment to this objective by more Extension staff-not just those who have always educated these audiences. The future success of Extension will be determined not only by the relevance of its educational programs, but by the extent to which low-income and minority group citizens participate in and consider them valuable.


Institutional Conflict Between Issues-Based and Disciplinary Programming
Bahn, Henry M.
Institutional conflict could be minimized by developing an issues-oriented programming model that's sensitive to the incentives facing CES faculty. But thorough analysis needs to be done first. The alleged breakdown in CES' social contract must be defined and validated.

Philosophy Diversions-Which Road?
Smith, Keith L.
What is the land-grant philosophy? What is our Extension philosophy? How do these two philosophies fit with our goals for issues programming, staffing, finances, and faculty development? Are these philosophies congruent with what we're "doing" in Extension? More importantly: Are they on the same road or diverging?

Ideas at Work

Responding to Crisis: Drought Directives
Chenoweth, Kathryn R.
A daily fact sheet, "Drought Directives," helped Washington County, Ohio families deal with the 1988 drought crisis. During the seemingly unending drought, Extension played a major role in helping families and communities deal with the crisis. Extension staff convened agribusiness and community leaders to share ideas about how that objective could best be met.

Entrepreneurship Program
Duncan, Beth Prudie, Marilyn
In 1988, the Mississippi Cooperative Extension Service joined efforts with industry, fund a pilot project targeted to home-based sewing entrepreneurs. train and help entrepreneurs establish and maintain profitable home-based sewing businesses to supplement family income.

Expanding the Proactive Audience
Wootton, Richard d.
Extension's ability to respond to questions has helped build organization loyalty. So it's not in the interest if our organization to become so issue or major program oriented that we can't be responsive to individuals. I'd like to present a strategy for involving these individual clients in a planned, major program effort.

Bridging the Hunger Gap
Mondrone, Karen E.
Low-income families that rely on food and meat programs have intakes of several nutrients below the recommended dietary allowances and, therefore, may be at health risk. Nutrition education can help increase this risk by ensuring people eat a variety of foods that are safely stored and prepared.

Interactive and Uplink TV
Stryker, Barry
...we tried a new teaching method: using interactive television and uplink satellite by broadcasting our training sessions statewide. The training sessions were positively received, and participants almost unanimously ageed to eagerly participate in a future training program using interactive television.

Research in Brief

Legislators' Criteria for Extension Funding
Kabes, David E.
The important goal for Extension is to accomplish all it proposes efficiently, and then ensure the legislators who allocate the funds are aware of the quantity and quality of the impact being made.

Farm Crisis and Human Service Coordinating Councils
Dollar, Susan C.
The study tried to answer two questions: (1) in what areas is the Coordinating Council successful and productive? (2) What do council members define as program priorities? The study indicates that awareness of access and availability of services are of primary concern to council members. Intervening in treatment issues, data collection, and evaluation are of minor importance.

Evaluation of County Agent Use of Enterprise Budgets
Bailey, DeeVon
How much county agents are using enterprise budget information to help farmers save money in crop planning is the focus of this study. An enterprise budget lists actual or projected costs and returns related to a specific agricultural venture.

Satellite Videoconferences for Training
Hermann, Janice R.
The advantage of using satellite for this type of training was the ability of county home economists to receive the training within their county. In addition, if work conflicted with class time, the sessions could be taped and viewed later.

Beyond Livestock Contests
Shurson, Jerry C. Lattner, Cindy L
Youth must be provided opportunities to explore career options, be introduced to science and technology related to these career choices, and develop fundamental life skills to become productive members of society. Do traditional 4-H project activities provide these opportunities? To answer this question, a survey was conducted to determine the impact of the 4-H swine project on youth development.

Effective Burnout Prevention Program
Fetsch, Robert J. Pergola, Joe
The authors collaborated to develop and test the impacts of full-day "Balancing Personal, Work, and Family Life" (BPWL) training workshops with Florida county Extension agents, who had asked for help in addressing the problem. We recommend that programs like those described in this article be offered and tested with professional and lay audiences.

Using Computers in Farm Management Education
Powell, Marie Powell, Timothy A. Green, Jane Bitney, Larry
Several implications emerge for the farm management Extension education effort. The fact that 60% of respondents indicated they weren't getting as much as they could from their accounting system indicates a need for further education in accounting and financial management. Generalized instruction in how to use accounting software may be needed as well.

How Part-Time Farmers Differ
Skeeles, James C.
Among part-time farmers, this study supports a difference in the characteristics and labor allocation decision process between the farm prime and hobby farmer groups. This study and previous research have found that most part-time farmers are maximizing their economic and emotional well-being by working on and off the farm.

Tools of the Trade

Scholarship Reconsidered
Campbell, Gerald R.
Earnest L. Boyer. Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1990. 147 pp. $8.00. If you ever searched for the words to explain scholarship in Extension, I've just the book for you. I see in Boyer's report a major catalyst for our ongoing attempt to make Extension a more understandable and desirable venue for academic toil. We have the opportunity and the obligation to help our academic colleagues understand that the unusual organizational structure called Cooperative Extension provides an environment that's especially rich in opportunities for scholarship.

National Issues Forums: A Public Policy Education Tool
Fulleylove-Krause, Faden
Successful public policy education, within Extension, is based on one important assumption-the Extension educator remains neutral and objective. The alternative consequences model of public policy education is a most appropriate model to maintain such objectivity. When using this model, the educator outlines the issues and alternatives-including their strengths and weaknesses-and leaves decision making to participants and the democratic process.

Handling Survey Data
Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg
The survey is a much-used Extension tool of the trade. Some tricks of the trade in handling data increase validity. Here are some tips for handling: (1) missing data, (2) nonsense or error responses, (3) scaling concerns, (4) "other" categories of responses, and (5) "not applicable" responses.

Improving Readability of Extension Materials
Liptak, Clare S.
"The public doesn't understand scientists' secret language. Don't expect them to learn it." The goal is to educate people about plants by briefly explaining the science behind a process or a problem and its solution and telling readers we have indepth information if they want it. Sensible Grammar and RightWriter are computer programs that help do this in about 450 words at the ninth grade level. After using these programs, I find it easier to write error-free, readable text.

The Delphi-An Evaluation Tool
Gamon, Julia A.
The Delphi technique consists of three or four rounds of questionnaires mailed to a panel of experts. Strengths of the Delphi are its combination of qualitative (written) and quantitative (numerical) data and its ability to form a consensus of expert opinion. Limitations are time involved for mailing and receiving replies and lack of stimulation from face-to-face contact.