Winter 1966 // Volume 4 // Number 4

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Point of View

Point of View(pdf)
Dear Mr. Edwards
Mary Boppell
Dear G. L.
Roland D. Manthe
Emphasis on Resource Development
Jack T. Sloan
Specialization and Education
L. C. Paul

Feature Articles

A Psychologist Encounters Extension (pdf)
Louis A. Zurcher, Jr.
No one has to tell the Extension worker about irrational reactions by clients who reject his sound advice.

Adults Can and Must Learn (pdf)
Wayne L. Schroeder
Failure of adults to continue learning is due to reasons other than lack of ability. Much evidence points to this conclusion. Peculiarities about the adult's life suggest that his learning behavior may be somewhat unique from that of a young person. As a potential learner, the adult must consider a proliferation of non-student roles as well as the student role. His non-student roles are made more complex by characteristics of present-day society. These characteristics emphasize the necessity for the adult to continue "learning his way through life."

Information Seeking and Adult Education (pdf)
Shirley A. Marsh, Alan B. Knox
To reach wider and more diverse audiences it is necessary to know more about women who do and who do not currently participate in Extension-type programs. This suggests the need to better understand the information-seeking patterns of women of differing levels of education, work patterns, and participation in community affairs. A study was made in Nebraska of similarities and differences among women as participators in adult education and users of mass media as sources of information. The study was based on a statewide sample of 644 women, ages 21 through 69, randomly selected. Findings are interpreted in relation to their possible meaning for Extension programming.

Dimensions of Leader Behavior (pdf)
Clarence J. Cunningham
A number of methods for examining leadership and leader behavior have been devised. Most of these methods have been tested in a variety of circumstances but have not been applied to the professional Extension worker. However, leader behavior of county Extension agents has been studied as it relates to the concepts of initiating structure and consideration. These concepts and the result of their application are summarized in this article.

Improving Agent Selection (pdf)
Peter Moon, Paul B. Crooks
Agent selection for Extension has rested primarily on the judgment of supervisors. Turnover has been considerable. Extension administrators have searched for ways to more accurately identify applicants who can be expected to continue their employment for reasonable periods of service; employing and training new personnel is costly. Standard psychological tests have been administered to Indiana personnel in a search for ways to predict potential performance on the job (see E. R. Ryden, "Predicting Successful Performance," Journal of Cooperative Extension, Summer, 1965, pp. 103-109). The Strong Vocational Interest Blank was used to see if Extension personnel have unique interest patterns. This article reports the results of a study to determine the potentiality of this interest test as a means of predicting whether a person will continue in the Service or quit after a short period of employment.

Evaluating Development Programs (pdf)
H. A. Henderson, B. J. Bond
Economic development programs are characterized as more complex and less well understood than typical Extension undertakings. However, the concept of evaluation is little different in purpose or need from any educational or action program. The differences between evaluating economic development and typical extension programs are mainly in methods of collecting information, the added difficulty of measuring changes, and the hazards of drawing inferences. A more important difference is the limited substantive base for evaluating economic development programs-it is not so easy to conduct controlled experimentation as the basis for substantive content as it is with the physical and biological sciences (the foundation of much of Extension's program content). Evaluation of existing programs is the primary source of knowledge in economic development.

Research in Brief (pdf)
R. L. Bruce, editor

Making Good Program Decisions
Low-Income Audiences
Effect of Forming Groups Sociometrically
School Vs. Community 4-H Clubs

Book Reviews (pdf)

Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. By R. L. Kahn et al., 1964. Available from John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016. $7.95.
Louis P. Albert

Home Economics Show-How and Showmanship. By Genevieve Callahan and Lou Richardson, 1966. Available from the Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. 149 pp. $3.95.
Mary Boppell

Principles of Organization. By Theodore Caplow, 1964. Available from Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., New York, N.Y. 10017. 383 pp. $6.95.
A. Rex Sieting

Social Action and Interaction in Program Planning. By George M. Beal, with Ross C. Blount, Ronald C. Powers, and W. John Johnson, 1966. Available from Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. 464 pp. $8.50.
Fred E. Kohl

Abstracts (pdf)

Patterns of Community Development. Edited by Richard Fanklin. 1966. 124 pp. Available from Public Affairs Press, 419 New Jersey Ave., S.C., Washington, D.C. 20003. $2.50.

Helping Hands: Volunteer Work in Education. Gayle Janowitz. 1965. 125 pp. Available from The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois 60628. $3.95

Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, II: Data and Directions. Edited by Robert Glaser. 1965. 832 pp. Available from the Department of Audiovisual Instruction, National Education Association, 1201 16th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. $11.50.

Mass Media and Communications. Edited by Charles S. Steinberg. 1966. 530 pp. Available from Hastings House Publishers, Inc., 151 E. 15th Street, New York, N.Y. $11.50.

Reflections of an Extension Executive. C. M. Ferguson. 1964. 132 pp. Available from the National Agricultural Extension Center for Advanced Study, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. $3.00.

Research and Education for Regional and Area Development. Iowa State University Center for Agricultural and Economic Development. 1966. 288 pp. Available from The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. $4.95.

International Home Economics: Conference on World-Wide Development of Home Economics in Higher Education. CAED Report 25. 1965. 283 pp. Available from the Center for Agricultural and Economic Development, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

What Is Behavioral Science? Harold M. F. Rush. The Conference Board Record, II (September, 1965), 35-41. Available from National Industrial Conference Board, Inc., 845 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022.

Community Resource Development. W. J. Kimball (coordinator). 1965. 188 pp. Available from Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. $3.00.

Volunteers for Learning. John W. C. Johnstone and Ramon J. Rivera. 1965. 624 pp. Available from Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, Illinois 60606. $12.50.

Working with Low-Income Families. 1965. 239 pp. Available from American Home Economics Association, 1600 Twentieth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009. $1.50.

Resource Book for Rural Universities in the Developing Countries. H. W. Hannah. 1966. 375 pp. Available from the University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois. $8.50.

Educating the Adult Educator. Part I: Concepts for the Curriculum. Burton W. Kreitlow. Research Bulletin 573, March, 1965. 23 pp. Available from agricultural Experiment Station, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. No charge.

The Doctorate in Adult Education: 1935-1965. Cyril O. Houle and John H. Buskey. Adult Education, XVI (Spring, 1966), 131-68. Available from Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1225 19th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. Single copy $1.25.

The Rural-Urban Variable: An Urbanite's Perspective. Leo F. Schnore. Rural Sociology, XXXI (June, 1966), 131-43. Available from Howard M. Sauer, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota. $3.00 single copy.

Consumer Behavior and the Behavioral Sciences: Theories and Applications. Edited by Stewart Henderson Britt. 1966. 592 pp. Available from John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publishers, New York, N.Y. 10016. $11.50.

Significant Developments in Continuing Higher Education. A. A. Liveright and Freda H. Goldman. 1965. 28 pp. Available from Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 138 Mountfort St., Brookline, Massachusetts 02146. $0.75.

Human Learning. Edward L. Thorndike. 1966 (first printing, 1931). 206 pp. Available from the M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142. $1.95 (paper).

Low-Income Outlook on Life. Lola M. Irelan and Arthur Besner. Welfare in Review, III (September, 1965), 13-19. Available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Single copy $0.35.

Poverty: An Annotated Bibliography and References. Freda L. Paltiel. 1966. Available from Canadian Welfare Council, 55 Parkdale Ave., Ottawa 3, Ontario, Canada. $3.00.