The Journal of Extension -

For Authors: Journal of Extension Duplicate Publication Policy

In the realm of academic scholarship, the practice of publishing the same data, ideas, or other material in multiple sources is known as duplicate publication. In general, authors must not submit to the Journal of Extension (JOE) manuscripts describing their data or other original material if such content has been published elsewhere.

Duplicate publication is prohibited by many academic journals for various reasons. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition (the APA manual)—the source on which JOE style and standards are based—explains that duplicate publication "distorts the knowledge base by making it appear there is more information available than actually exists" and "can give the erroneous impression that findings are more replicable than is the case or that particular conclusions are more strongly supported than is warranted by the cumulative evidence."

In addition to the aforementioned problems related to duplicate publication, the practice violates JOE’s copyright policy. When the JOE editor notifies a corresponding author that a manuscript has been accepted for publication, the editor requires that the author affirm, on behalf of all article authors, compliance with the JOE Copyright Agreement by completing and submitting the associated Agreement of Compliance Form. The JOE Copyright Agreement stipulates, among other things, that the manuscript is original, that it violates no copyrights, that it has been submitted to no other journal, and that its copyright is fully transferred to JOE.

JOE may accept a manuscript about research that was the topic of a previously published work if the focus of the manuscript differs substantially from that of the other work. For more information about reporting different aspects of research in multiple articles, see Generating Multiple Articles from a Data Set on the JOE website. In addition, JOE may accept a manuscript about research that was the topic of a previously published work if the manuscript represents a subsequent reanalysis of data as a result of new theories, methodologies, or other innovations.

What’s Included, What’s Excluded

As noted, JOE prohibits duplicate publication in general. But there are exceptions to this rule. Prospective JOE authors often have questions about what does and does not constitute "previously published" materials with regard to JOE’s duplicate publication and copyright policies. The information in this section should help answer those questions.

A prospective JOE author should not submit a manuscript that has been published previously in whole or in substantial part in certain types of sources. These types of sources include

  • copyrighted sources,
  • sources offered for sale, and
  • sources that are not copyrighted or offered for sale but are available online or have been widely distributed in some form.

Obviously, then, exceptions to the duplicate publication rule apply to sources that include only an abstracted form of a manuscript and sources that have been distributed in only an extremely limited capacity.

In all cases in which an author is submitting a manuscript containing material previously published in one of the permissible types of sources, the author should inform the JOE editor at the time of submission. Also, the manuscript must include an appropriate reference to or acknowledgment of the previously published material.

Dissemination of Data Prior to a Manuscript’s Publication in JOE

Another question prospective JOE authors sometimes have relates to concern about delaying the dissemination of crucial information while awaiting publication of a manuscript. Extension professionals and other outreach educators are in the business of conveying research-based findings to various stakeholder groups and helping those groups take applicable action. If an Extension educator has submitted a manuscript that provides new information related to helping growers battle a crop disease, for example, it is in no one’s best interest to keep that information under wraps while the submission moves through JOE’s review and publication process. Consequently, in their efforts to disseminate important information to other professionals and clients, prospective JOE authors may share their findings as needed with various groups and in various formats as long as they do not violate the rules outlined herein.

For More Information

For additional information about duplicate publication and self-plagiarism, see the APA manual.

Prospective authors who have additional questions about JOE’s duplicate publication policy may contact the JOE editor at