April 2003 // Volume 41 // Number 2

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Editor's Page

Editor's Page
"April 2003 JOE" describes two "topic clusters" that distinguish this month's issue. "Hearing About JOE Submissions & Revisions" talks about factors that affect when authors hear about the status of their new submissions or revisions.

Feature Articles

Transformative Learning in Extension Staff Partnerships: Facilitating Personal, Joint, and Organizational Change
Franz, Nancy K.
Partnerships can enhance individual and organizational success through more effective problem solving and improved adaptation to change. Learning is often required for successful collaboration that may transform the partners. This article discusses a study that explored learning in Extension staff partnerships that transform the individual, the partnership, and the organization. Three types of learning and eight types of transformative learning are identified. Conditions that promoted transformative learning in successful partnerships included strong partner facilitation, critical reflection, critical events, partner difference bridged by common purpose, and independence with interdependence. Recommendations for nurturing transforming Extension staff partnerships are shared.

Multi-Tiered, Multi-Disciplinary Work Teams--The CSU CAFO Work Group Tackles Controversial Public Issues
Seidl, Andrew
The Colorado State University Cooperative Extension administration formed a multi-disciplinary and multi-level working group to address the debate over large confined animal feeding operations. The work group structure included campus-based extension personnel, regional specialists, and county agents from each of Colorado's Extension regions. The group undertook to inform the CE system, interest groups, elected officials, and the lay public about CAFO policy issues. Evaluation suggests support for the structure, content, and activities of the group. All respondents thought that the work group was a useful model for public policy and public issues education, although areas for improvement were also identified.

An Organizational Culture Assessment Using the Competing Values Framework: A Profile of Ohio State University Extension
Berrio, Angel A.
The competing values framework was used to describe the organizational culture type exhibited by Ohio State University Extension (OSU Extension) personnel. This framework assesses the dominant organizational culture based on four culture types: Clan, Hierarchy, Adhocracy, and Market. OSU Extension personnel exhibited a Clan culture type as dominant in both the current and preferred situations. The Clan culture portrays OSU Extension as an organization that concentrates on internal maintenance with flexibility, concern for people, and sensitivity for customers. The study suggests implications for Extension nationwide.

Outcomes of Individual vs. Group Instruction in EFNEP
Dollahite, Jamie; Scott-Pierce, Michelle
This article presents an analysis of self-reported behavioral outcomes from three years' of New York State EFNEP evaluation data. Participant instruction has shifted from a primarily one-on-one format to group instruction because of staff safety concerns and the impact of welfare reform on recruitment, as well as financial constraints. The question is raised regarding the cost-effectiveness of group education as currently delivered. If groups are unavoidable in the current climate, educators need to identify strategies to maximize impact among participants educated in group settings.

Characteristics of Effective Training: Developing a Model to Motivate Action
Wise, Dena; Ezell, Patsy
This article outlines the process through which the University of Tennessee PACE leadership team identified a successful model for training welfare-to-work facilitators. The article reviews findings on effective training, reports the process and outcomes of training model development, and suggests practical ways for implementing the resulting model in the classroom. When used with a broad range of learners, the model has proven effective in training facilitators to focus on educational process and behavior change as well as information content in their program delivery.

Educational Outreach in a Large Retail Chain: Opportunities, Challenges, and Suggested Approaches
Ponessa, Joseph T.
To raise public awareness about lead poison hazards associated with home repair/remodeling projects, we brought the program to the audience. We conducted outreach in large retail home centers. While we found store managers interested and supportive, it was nevertheless very difficult working with them, due to their hectic work situation. Nevertheless, we managed to conduct outreach in 22 of 23 stores approached and had the unexpected opportunity to provide staff training, as well. This article discusses the difficulties we encountered and the solutions we developed. It should be of value to those planning programs in large retail outlets.

Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Niños Para Familias Saludables
Kock, Jo Anne
"Children's Books of Healthy Families/Libros de Niños Para Familias Saludables," which reached more than 2,500 parents and more 4,700 children, promotes positive parent/child and caregiver/child interaction, assists in parent/child bonding, and promotes school readiness. Evaluations revealed that the 2-year project increased positive parent/child interaction, that parents had a substantial increase in the number of books in the home, and that parents and caregivers increased the time spent reading to children and established regular reading times. By extending educational programming to at-risk and Hispanic audiences, Extension educators can make a difference in the well-being of the family and the community.

Productive Partnerships for Food: Principles and Strategies
Gillespie, Ardyth H.; Gantner, Leigh A.; Craig, Susie; Dischner, Kathleen; Lansing, Darlene
This article guides Extension educators in facilitating university-community partnerships in their locality. Principles and strategies for building effective and productive university-community partnerships around food that integrate research, education, and action are discussed, drawing from three examples. Partnerships are based on the principles of building off of community assets, diverse stakeholder involvement, guidance by community interests, and integration of research with practice. The partnership strategies encourage partners to develop common goals, clarify roles and responsibilities, develop protocols, commit the necessary resources, and create a flexible and trusting atmosphere. The need to balance multiple interests in a partnership is discussed.

Research in Brief

To Bully-Proof or Not to Bully-Proof: That Is the Question
Go, Charles; Murdock, Shelley
In an effort to prevent tragic incidents like Columbine from recurring, bully-proofing programs are being implemented with the premise that bullies should be identified and an intervention program administered while victims are taught to defend themselves against bullies. However, our survey of middle school students showed that youth could be both bullies and victims at the same time and under variable conditions. The research results call into question the likelihood of success in bully-proofing programs. Instead, the results suggest that promoting positive youth development programs and creating a sense of safety in schools and neighborhoods may be more effective approaches.

Pesticide Use Changes in New York Vegetables: 1978 to 1998
Stivers-Young, Lydia J.; Kuhar, Thomas P.; Hoffmann, Michael P.
Pesticide use patterns in 1978 and 1998 were compared for 15 vegetable crops grown in New York State. Insecticide use decreased in almost all vegetables over this period, with an overall decline of 65%. Total herbicide use declined 24%, while fungicide use increased 76%. Within crops, potatoes and onions received more than 60% of all pesticide use on vegetables. Large declines in pesticide use occurred in some crops and usually were associated with the substitution of low use-rate for high use-rate insecticides or herbicides. Strategies for future reductions in pesticide use are discussed.

An Assessment of Consumer Preferences for IPM- and Organically Grown Produce
Zehnder, Geoff; Hope, Chip; Hill, Hoke; Hoyle, Libby; Blake, James H.
Our study assessed local consumer preferences for IPM- and organically grown produce to determine if market opportunities exist for these products. The majority of those surveyed expressed concern about the health effects of pesticide residues on produce. Results also indicate that consumers would preferentially purchase IPM or organic produce if labels/information were provided at the point of sale to reflect pest management practices. Survey respondents indicated a willingness to pay more for IPM/organic produce than for conventionally grown produce, even if the IPM/organic produce had slight cosmetic blemishes.

An Interactive Survey to Assess Consumer Knowledge About Landscape Plant Health Care and IPM Practices
Sellmer, James C.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Suchanic, David J.; Barton, Susan
Employing a touch screen computer system with a survey tool in the format of a quiz can be used to assess consumer knowledge of integrated pest management and plant health care practices. This article describes the survey tool and environment the survey was administered under and summarizes the results of the survey. Homeowner knowledge of integrated pest management and plant health care concepts was high, with greater than half of the respondents choosing correct answers to the survey questions. These findings suggest that Cooperative Extension agents and specialists are positively affecting home landscape management by influencing consumer knowledge and practices.

Impact of the Penn State Food Safety Web Site as a Food Safety Information Resource for Extension Professionals
LaBorde, Luke
The Penn State Food Safety Web Site <http://foodsafety.cas.psu.edu/> was created in response to an expressed need by county Extension agents for a well organized, user-friendly Web site for finding food safety and preservation information. Agents reported that the site is used between one time per week and one time per month and that the food preservation database is the most frequently visited section. Food safety information was reported to be easier and faster to find compared to traditional resources. Agent acceptance of the Web site offers an opportunity for expanded use of the Internet for increasing communication and training activities.

Can County Commissions Emerge as Players in Western Natural Resources Policy Development?
Hiller, Joseph G.; Rodgers, J. Daniel
Many county commissioners in the western United States preside over rural and/or public lands-dominated counties. Their formal role in the development of natural resources public policy is poorly defined, but rapidly evolving. As part-time elected officials, they state needs for training in both policy process skills and technically oriented subject matter. A survey investigation of their nonformal learning environment was conducted. They desire more consistent involvement in issues dialogue and higher-quality interactions with various policy influencers. Commissioners overwhelmingly prefer consultation with county government officials--with more regularity, confidence, and credibility than with any other agency, consultant, or institution.

Ideas at Work

Integrating Value-Added Research with Field Management Practice: An Effective Extension Mechanism at the University of Maryland
Lo, Y. Martin; Hall, John E.; Kratochvil, Robert J.; Kenworthy, William J.; Radinsky, Julia A.; Johnson, Eric B.
An effective Extension mechanism integrating value-added research with field management practice has been developed in Maryland. Through this mechanism, farmers are engaged in an alternative crop production process. We expect that value-added enhancements can be achieved and, subsequently, a sustainable/profitable agricultural community will emerge. The diverse research team ensures that a comprehensive approach to developing value-added products/markets will occur. Additionally, we expect that the effective coordination of scholarly research and Extension that is the cornerstone of this project will lead directly to improved and profitable farming practices and an enhanced quality of life for farmers and their rural communities.

Implementing a 4-H Aquatic Resources Education Program in New York City Through Collaborations
Brown, Stephen C.; Ferenz, Gretchen; Krasny, Marianne E.; Tse, Carolyn
The New York State 4-H Sportfishing and Aquatic Resources Education Program (SAREP) has enjoyed relatively high participation rates in upstate New York, but until 1998, had experienced little success in New York City. This was due to the Cornell staff's inexperience in working with the Extension program in NYC, which does not use the traditional rural volunteer-led 4-H club model. Rather than create a traditional club system in NYC, it was decided to build collaborations with existing youth-serving organizations. The approach resulted in 17 different youth-serving organizations conducting SAREP programming reaching approximately 40,000 youth annually.

Collaborations for the Community: The Partnership of Extension and Pharmacy
Mehta, Bella; Reschke, Kathy; Cable, Gerald; McDowell, Joyce
Through partnering of resources and expertise of Ohio State University Extension and the College of Pharmacy, programs that affect the health of Ohio consumers are being developed. Early collaborative projects involved medication consultation for seniors by Pharmacy faculty and students, and development of fact sheets on herbs and dietary supplements. The Ohio Extension/Pharmacy Alliance for Community Health (Ohio EPACH) is currently focusing on health literacy needs among child caregivers and among the elderly and their caregivers.

Building a Risk Management Education Program for New England Dairy Farmers
Kauppila, Dennis; Pelsue, Neil
New England dairy farmers have faced increasing risks in producing and marketing their products. The national Federal Milk Order Program underwent a major revision, and Congress continues to modify the price safety nets for farmers. Accordingly, dairy farmers must become ever vigilant in their efforts to identify the risks over which they may exercise some degree of control. They must learn how to incorporate appropriate risk management tools in their day-to-day and longer term business planning and decision making. This project identified the perceived high priority risks and developed instructional workshops to enhance efforts to improve farm business decision making.

Tools of the Trade

Best Practices in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Practitioner Handbook
Moncloa, Fe; Johns, Marilyn; Gong, Elizabeth J.; Russell, Stephen; Lee, Faye; West, Estella
The Best Practices in Teen Pregnancy Prevention Practitioner Handbook presents 10 best practices from the literature, as well as findings from surveys and visits made to local teen pregnancy prevention programs in schools, community-based agencies, and health care agencies. Each of the best practices in this handbook includes key research findings, program recommendations, and tips for the field. The handbook has been widely used in California and across the nation to enhance the content and delivery of teen pregnancy prevention programs.

How to Create and Use an Interactive PowerPoint Quiz Game
O'Neill, Barbara
This article describes a Jeopardy style quiz game that can be developed using Microsoft PowerPoint software. It can be used by Extension educators in a number of educational settings, including 4-H club learning activities, kiosk displays, and Web-based learning modules. The quiz consists of 51 slides and includes a game board with 25 question slides and 25 answer slides. Step-by step instructions are provided to develop an interactive quiz using the hyperlink features of PowerPoint to connect answers to questions and questions back to the game board.

"Welcome to the Real World" Positively Affects Youth Financial Management Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes
Spencer, Marnie; Petty, Barbara; Stimpson, Janice; Dees, Lorie; Riley, Linette
What skills do youth need to succeed in the "real world"? This article describes "Welcome to the Real World," an active, hands-on program where youth participants explore career opportunities and make lifestyle and budget choices similar to those faced by adults on a daily basis. Participants choose a career, save 10% of their take-home pay, learn skills needed to manage finances, write checks and balance a checkbook, and explore alternatives that would help balance a budget. This program positively influences the financial management skills, knowledge, and attitudes of youth as they prepare for success in the "real world."

Using Speed Dating Techniques to Enliven and Improve Conferences and Workshops
Lev, Larry
Most Extension educators seek new ideas for organizing more exciting and animated workshops and conferences. This article describes structured networking activities (also know as "speed dating") that succeed in enlivening meetings, strengthening networking, and improving learning. A speed mentoring approach was successful in sharing knowledge among farmers' market managers with different levels of experience. Farmers and chefs used a more classic speed dating approach to forge new relationships and make deals.