Fall 1992 // Volume 30 // Number 3

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Editor's Page

Editor's Page
One of the questions I'm asked most frequently is how the special section is determined for each issue of the Journal. The short answer is-it emerges. Manuscripts on an amazingly wide variety of topics are submitted for review. Underlying that variety, however, is the "deep structure" of Extension work that connects us. This issue features a special section on approaches to economic development.

Feature Articles

Motives and Incentives of Older Adult Volunteers
Rouse, Shirley B. Clawson, Barbara
Volunteer activities give older adults opportunities to share their experience, wisdom, and skills with youth, adults, and other older adults. The long-held notion that older people lack interest and willingness to serve as volunteers has changed. Today, older adults are actively sought to serve as volunteers.

Why Adults Participate
Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg
A 1987 study of Ohio Cooperative Extension Service surveyed Extension clientele who had been involved in a variety of Extension programs. Five factors emerged from the principal-component factor analysis of responses to items related to participation. They were: low anticipated difficulties with arrangements, high commitments to the Extension organization, anticipated positive social involvement, anticipated high quality of the information, and possession of high internal motivation to learn.

Teaching Consumer Credit at Home
Gibson, Chere Campbell Boelter, Linda A. Boyce, Laurie Johnson LeFebvre, Joan E.
Consumers need to know how to manage their credit. Yet, many barriers keep people from participating in consumer credit classes. These barriers include lack of time and money, inconvenient scheduling or location of classes, and even lack of confidence. To meet the educational need while also addressing barriers to participation, University of Wisconsin-Extension faculty developed Using Credit Wisely, an audio- and print-based consumer credit distance education program.

Learning Preferences and Farm Computer Use
Iddings, R. Keith Apps, Jerold W.
How much farmers use their computers is influenced by many factors. The ways in which a person with unique attitudes and preferences goes about learning the computer may be a particularly powerful influence. If farmers don't learn successfully, they can't efficiently use computers. Moreover, if the learning methods used in the task are distasteful, the chances of upgrading skill beyond a rudimentary level dwindle.

Working with Local Nonprofit Organizations
Parrott, Kathleen Engelen-Eigles, Deborah
With the increasing dependence on local organizations for the provision of housing services, Extension professionals have an important opportunity to use their knowledge and skills to benefit their communities. This poses a challenge not only to individual organizations and Extension units, but to the whole Extension System. To meet this challenge, the system needs to re-examine how it can fulfill its mission and develop a flexibility to reach down into American communities to help them respond to the challenges they face in the '90s.

Estimating Economic Impacts of Programming
Marcouiller, David W. Ray, Daryll E. Schreiner, Dean F. Lewis, David K.
This article outlines a technique to estimate regional economic impacts of production-oriented Extension programs. The methodology is a valuable tool to use in the effective allocation of scarce Extension resources. Extension programs can focus on economic development objectives. Understanding regional economic structure is an important part of analyzing the options available to Extension planners. This understanding is fundamental to developing programs addressing unemployment, underemployment, or substandard per capita incomes.

Aquaculture Opportunities
Snyder, Fred L.
Fish farming, or aquaculture, has strong potential to become one of America's growth industries in the coming decades. It offers Extension an opportunity to play a leading role in the development and dissemination of much-needed, localized technology. For Extension, aquaculture demonstration can mean a challenging new program of applied research and teaching that brings new faces into the ranks of Extension clientele.

Starting a County Agricultural Marketing Program
Vossen, Paul
A county-based marketing program, which includes a "Sonoma County Select" seal, has recently been created to increase consumer demand for these products by enhancing awareness of the great diversity and quality of the county's agricultural products. Extension provided Sonoma County's agricultural community with an opportunity to work together. Similar cooperative marketing programs could be successful in other areas of the county.

A Multidisciplinary Model for Industry Support
Dillars, Betty G. Froke, Barbara Dickerson, Kitty G.
In response to a reduction in the number of regional textile and apparel management specialists serving Missouri communities, the Extension Textile and Apparel Management Program was redirected to provide support primarily to apparel manufacturers and retailers. An open state specialist position was filled in the Spring of 1991 to lead the newly established Missouri Textile and Apparel Center (MO-TAC). The mission of MO-TAC is to positively affect Missouri's economy by helping manufacturers and retailers of apparel and sewn products improve their competitive position.

To The Point

An Emphasis on Diversity in CES
Gear, Curtis
A multicultural organization is built on both diversity and pluralism. The emphasis on diversity isn't a repackaged version of Extension's Civil Rights programs. There's much talk about diversity throughout the system. Now is the time to convert talk to action.

Diversity Involves Us All
Williams, Leodrey
...all actors in the educational arena will have to play their roles well, from those above the Extension director or administrator level to agents on the firing line...Those setting policy and making decisions about Extension will also reflect the diversity of our nation.

Alternatives: Get Mad, Give Up, Make Changes
Tompkins, Rachel
While it's convenient to wall ourselves off from the "thems" who have or cause problems elsewhere, the reality is that the problems are everywhere that racism, intolerance, and negative attitudes toward anyone different are allowed to flourish. I'm proud of the Cooperative Extension System for explicitly tackling diversity.


Global Trends in Extension Privatization
Rivers, William
An international perspective helps us understand and appreciate the present institutional re-evaluation and evolution occurring in the U.S. Cooperative Extension System. As this brief introduction suggests, the reasons underlying the critical attack on financing the system aren't only a national phenomenon, but part of larger forces for change operating internationally.

China's Extension System
Crook, Frederick W.
The rapid expansion of technical contracts in China reflects fundamental changes in the rural economic system. Agricultural technical contracts likely will accelerate the spread of technology, boost output, and change supply and demand conditions in China, which will affect U.S. agricultural trade.

Agent Effectiveness in Nigeria
Obinne, Chukwudi
Knowledge of the success of a program in agriculture should enable agricultural policy makers and government agencies to strengthen or re-adjust existing programs to enhance greater program efficiency. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the level of effectiveness of extension agents in Nigeria with respect to selected abilities.


Educating the Individual or the Collective?
Hutchins, Gregory K.
Most of Extension's educational efforts since World War II have centered on changing individuals. Extension's current focus on issues-based programming is forcing a re-examination of this approach and the consideration of additional options. The expert-to-individual model of education can benefit the person who interacts with the expert, but Extension doesn't have the resources to use that model everywhere a need exists.

Flavor of Youthful Innovation
Betts, Sherry C.
The young people participated in a developmental process they can use again and again in their clubs, schools, and communities on any problem or issue. They shared some creative, silly, brave, new, harebrained, brilliant ideas with the adults in the group to create something new and valuable. Both the process and the report have implications for all of Extension's National Initiatives-not just Youth at Risk.

Ideas at Work

Reducing Dietary Fat-With Humor
Ensle-Mondrone, Karen
"Lower Your Cholesterol" helps the consumer understand the nature and digestion of fats/cholesterol in the diet. The Mr. Oilbee character emphasizes an increase in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables accompanied by a decrease in total dietary fat. Examples of teaspoons of fat in foods helped participants visualize adding fat in the daily diet. The program makes learning fun by adding some humor to a serious subject. Humor revitalizes the attention span, increases subject-matter retention, promotes comprehension, reduces anxiety, and enhances the effectiveness of Extension teaching.

Leading Leadership Education
Penrod, Kathryn
...agents were able to examine the 19 leadership competencies and some of the data reported in the study. It generated discussion among staff from different disciplines and helped them evaluate their leadership education work. This simple activity is one way for professionals throughout the system to review the impact study report and evaluate the way they spend time working with leadership education.

Nutrition Education for Homebound Elderly
Hans, Carol L.
The rural elderly are at great nutritional risk because of poor economic and social conditions, inadequate services, and the presence of at-risk subgroups, such as widows and people in poor health. Peer NETWORK, an acronym for Peer Nutrition Education Training with Older Resource Knowhow, was developed by Iowa Extension to address the needs of homebound elderly.

Research in Brief

The 4-H Incentive System
Forbes, Sheila
The significant and persistent loss of 4-H Club members in the teen years suggests the 4-H incentive system may not be effective. The purpose of my study was to explore the motivational characteristics of former 4-H members in relation to their length of time and success in the program.

Regional Cooperation in Forestry
David B. Kittredge, Jr.
Because of the small size of the northeastern states and the similarity of forest conditions and ownership patterns, there are often common regional forest resource issues. To further explore the opportunities for regional cooperation, a study using the Delphi technique was initiated in 1989.

Resource Management of Rural Households
Hira, Tahira K. Fitzsimmons, Vicki Schram
Single-parent households have increased in both rural and urban areas. Because these households have one less person to handle resource management than two-parent households, using recommended time and money management practices may be the only way to stretch limited resources. This study examined differences in frequency of resource (time and money) management practices in the two household types.

Tools of the Trade

Break It Before It's Beyond Fixing
Astroth, Kirk A.
Robert J. Kirgel and Louis Patler. If It Ain't Broke...Break It! and Other Unconventional Wisdom for a Changing Business World. New York: Warner Books, 1991. 284 pp. $21.95 hardcover. If ever there was a book Extension faculty and administrators should read, If It Ain't Broke, Break It! ought to be in the top 10 list. Like A Whack on the Side of the Head and Discovering the Future, authors Kriegel and Patler's newest book offers a wealth of advice that applies to all organizations, including Extension.

The Frugal Mind
Jennings, Jo Lynn
Charlotte Gorman, The Frugal Mind: 1,479 Money Saving Tips for Surviving the 1990's, Denton, Texas: Nottingham Books, 1990, 322 pp. $16.95, softcover. Available fro publishers: P. O. Box 2454, Denton, Texas 76202 The Frugal Mind is a compilation of hundreds of tips pulled together in one book to serve as an immediate reference for people who want to cut expenses, have more money, and get the most they possibly can from their dollars.